Standard Sizes Of Rooms

Living Room / Hall Living room is always the first and welcoming place for sitting of family members and to receive friends and guests. Most of the activities and special occasion happen in the living room. Living room should be located in the middle that acts as a connecting space between other rooms. It should be well-lighted and ventilated. Sizes :- 4200mm X 4800 mm (14ft X 16ft) to 5400mm X 7200mm (18ft X 24ft) ■ Bedroom Bedrooms are the most important as it should be located in such a way that they are well ventilated and at the same time provide privacy. One of the wall of bedroom is always external, as to provide ventilation and locate the window. The bedroom should be located on the side of the direction of prevailing wind so that the warm air is not collected. Sizes :- 3000mm X 3600mm (10ft X 12ft) to 4200mm X 4800mm (14ft X 16ft) ■ Kitchen   Kitchen is the most functional space in an Indian house. Kitchen should also be proper ventilated and p

Dampness And Its Prevention

 Dampness in a building is the presence of moisture in various parts of building like floor, wall, roof etc The continuous dampness of building give rise to unhygenic condition, hence care should be taken to prevent such situation. In this chapter causes and effects of dampness are presented. Ideal materials required for prevention of dampness are discussed and various methods of preventing dampness are presented. ■  Dampness may be caused by: 1.Ground water 2.Rain water and 3.Leakages from pipes. ■  Effects of dampness are as listed below: 1. Patches develop and destroy the appearance of the building. 2. Colour wash, white wash and paintings are damaged. 3. Plaster crumbles. 4. Bricks and stones disintegrate endangering the building. 5. Steel in the slabs and beam start rusting. It reduces the life of structure. 6. Electric short circuits may takes place. 7. Flooring may settle. 8. Floor covers are damaged. 9. Wooden

Basics Of Civil Engineering

■ CONCRETE GRADE M5 1:4:8 M10= 1:3:6 M15- 1:2:4 M20= 1:1.5:3 M25= 1:1:2 ■ CLEAR COVER TO MAIN REINFORCEMENT : 1.FOOTINGS: 50 mm 2.RAFT FOUNDATION.TOP: 50 mm 3.RAFT FOUNDATION.BOTTOM/SIDES: 75 mm 4.STRAP BEAM: 50 mm 5.GRADE SLAB: 20 mm 6.COLUMN: 40 mm 7.SHEAR WALL: 25 mm 8.BEAMS 25 mm 9.SLABS: 15 mm 10.FLAT SLAB: 20 mm 11.STAIRCASE: 15 mm 12.WATER RETAINING STRUCTURES: 20/30 mm ■ Time required For Formwork Removal: Columns: 24 hrs Beams upto 6m: 14 days Beams above 6m: 21 days Slabs upto 4.5m: 7 days Slabs above 4.5m: 14 days

Reinforced Cement Concrete

The concrete of the mixture of cement, sand, water and aggregate in a certain proportion with steel bars by a known method is termed as Reinforcement Cement Concrete. STEPS FOR PLACING RCC Form work, shuttering, centering         For casting of slab or column, there is a requirement of form work, which should be covered from four sides to retain the concrete. For casting of slab, shuttering is also required. Form work and shuttering are done by plywood or steel plates (panels) where an arch is provided in wall. Form work is done according to the curve of the arch, which is known as centering. Slab Formwork The wooden planks or steel panels used as mould, in which concrete is poured and the stand of ballies (Bamboos) or steel posts is known as shuttering. It is provided till concrete get hardened to bear loads. The diameter of ballies should not be less than 100 mm and at extreme 80 mm. Ballies should be provided at the distance of the column and should be placed stra

Work Method For Wall Plastering

Plaster is a building material used for the protective or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements .    Plastering also provides a finished surface over the masonry that is firm and smooth hence it enhances the appearance of the building   MATERIAL  1.  Cement confirms to IS 269 : OPC 53 Gr as technical specification  2.     Fine aggregates of usually natural source confirms IS 1542  3.     Water confirms to IS 456:2000  4.      Plaster mesh as specified MACHINERIES AND EQUIPMENTS 1.     Sand sieve screen 2.     Plumb bob 3.     Aluminum straight edge 4.     Masonic spirit level 5.     Other required tools and tackles 6.     Measuring box 7.     Mechanical mixer PREPARATION OF SURFACE 1.   Check for base preparation i.e. bulging, honeycomb, protruding of steel bars etc. in      concrete, rectify it if any. 2.     The joints in all walls shall be raked to depth of 15mm, brush cleaned with wire       brush